A Conditional Use Permit (“CUP”) issued by a government agency is a property right. Any decision made by a local land use board that affects property, or any individual having an interest in that property, must be made in accordance with due process constraints. Meaning, that in order for a CUP to be amended or terminated, the agency must give the holder notice and a right to respond. If notice and a right to respond are not granted before changes to the CUP are made, a violation of the holder’s civil rights may have occurred.
The Constitutions of both the United States and the State of Idaho prohibit deprivation of “life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.” U.S. Const. amends. 5 and 14; Idaho Const. art. I, § 13. Once granted, “[a] permit is a valuable property right and can only be revoked as provided by statute.” Allied Van Lines, Inc., 79 Idaho at 225, 312 P.2d at 1053 (1957). “[C]ounties have the authority to grant new conditional use permits which modify existing permits.” Chambers v. Kootenai County Board of Comm’rs, 125 Idaho 115, 117, 867 P.2d 989, 991 (1994). However, the basic tenets of due process are applicable to the modification of an existing CUP. Chambers, 125 Idaho at 118, 867 P.2d at 992. And, before a CUP may be revoked, “[t]here must be a definite charge that the permit holder has violated or refused to observe some order or regulation of the Commission or some applicable state law.” Allied Van Lines, Inc., 79 Idaho at 225, 312 P.2d 1053. After the permitee is provided notice of violation, all remaining due process requirements must also be afforded. Allied Van Lines, Inc., 79 Idaho at 225, 312 P.2d 1053; Angstman, 128 Idaho at 578, 917 P.2d at 412.
In Idaho, “a decision by a zoning board applying general rules or specific policies to specific individuals, interest or situations, are quasi-judicial in nature and subject to due process constraints.” Chambers v. Kootenai County Board of Comm’rs, 125 Idaho 115, 118, 867 P.2d 989, 992 (1994). As such, due process safeguards apply to proceedings conducted by local zoning boards regarding whether to grant a CUP, or to review and grant a new CUP that modifies an existing permit. Chambers, 125 Idaho at117, 867 P.2d at 991; Angstman v. City of Boise, 128 Idaho 575, 578, 917 P.2d 409, 412 (Idaho Ct. App. 1996). At a minimum, due process requires: a hearing and notice of each proceeding; an opportunity to be present and rebut evidence; a transcribable verbatim record of the proceedings; specific, written findings of fact and conclusions upon which a decision is based; and right to appeal. I.C. §§ 67-6512, 67-6519 and 67-6535(4); Allied Van Lines, Inc. v. Idaho Pub. Utilities Comm’n, 79 Idaho 220, 225, 312 P.2d 1050, 1053 (1957); Angstman, 128 Idaho at 578, 917 P.2d at 412. To ensure due process constraints are respected, a municipality will be liable for “‘systemic’ injuries that result not so much from the conduct of any single individual, but from the interactive behavior of several government officials, each of whom may be acting in good faith.” Chalmers v. City of Los Angeles, 762 F.2d 753, 757 (9th Cir. 1985) quoting Owen v. City of Independence, 445 U.S. 622, 652 (1980).